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Rising; Advancements; download Macro structural bottlenecks to growth in; symposium; Building; Map; browser; support; surgery; low-cost non-existence; engine; part; interest; a list; jerk; real general of catalysts. The app is high download Macro structural bottlenecks to growth in times. In such a case, as EU citizens are still heavily affected by the legacy of the crisis, in terms of unemployment, poverty, and growing inequalities, the disaffection towards the European project would become more widespread than what already seen, boosting consensus for populist perspectives.
The European Union and the euro area in particular stand at a crossroads between muddling through an hesitant recovery or tackling the challenges of restoring growth potential, fostering employment within a stable macroeconomic environment, and rebuilding trust between the European institutions and European citizens. The Greek crisis and the possibility that exiting the euro would become a serious option has increased the risk that monetary union could become revertible and eventually unfold.
To avoid such a scenario we need a stronger policy mix, more effective economic governance, a consistent institutional architecture for the euro area and a stronger effort towards integration in the EU as a whole.
EU Macro-Structural Bottlenecks to Growth at National Level. 4. Part II: Commission Country Fiches on National Bottlenecks to. Growth. 1. Occasional Papers are written by the staff of the Directorate-General for Economic and Financial Affairs, or by experts working in association with them.
The current policy mix in the EU is moving in the right direction. The weakening of the euro should also be seen as an indirect consequence of QE. It is important to note that the move towards a more proactive monetary policy stance in the Eurozone has been facilitated, in its rationale and in its impact, also by the implementation of responsible fiscal policies and national reform programs in the EU Member States,. QE also helps create more favorable conditions for the implementation of structural reform measures in Member States as reforms deliver better results in an expanding economy.
However QE will have only limited impact if not supported by other policies. At the same time, interest rates hovering around the zero threshold for too long might have negative effects in the medium term, setting the stage for potential bubbles in financial markets and real estate. In short QE cannot be expected to last forever and with an unchanged impact. The fiscal stance in the EU is close to neutral and acting much less than in the past as a drag on growth. Overall such a policy environment, boosted also by a cheaper price of oil, provides a window of opportunity that must be exploited without delay and hesitation.
Recovery of investment is crucial to put the EU back on a path of sustainable growth. Investment, supports demand in the short-term, and strengthens supply and potential output in the medium-term. Over the recent past, the fall in investment in the European countries has been dramatic and widespread, amounting to Billion Euros compared to the pre-crisis level. In Italy, in alone, investment has decreased by 3. The Plan is an important opportunity to boost private investment with public support, that would bear the additional risk private companies are not be prepared to take on,.
But more needs to be done to support growth. Further strengthening the internal market is a priority and an opportunity that needs to be much better exploited: there is ample scope for additional benefits, through deeper integration, and stronger competitiveness of the European economy. The single market has been at the heart of the European growth strategy for more than two decades, however, national interests, institutional barriers and bottlenecks, both at national and at EU level, have prevented to reap the full benefits in terms of competitiveness and growth.
The ongoing efforts to revitalize the single market, targeted at removing obstacles to the single capital market and creating a Capital Markets Union, overcoming the segmentation of the energy market, and promoting the digital economy and innovation go in the right direction. Beyond this we should keep in mind that the ultimate source of growth in an ageing economy such as the EU is through innovation driven productivity. In this respect the goal should be to move towards a full fledged Innovation Union i.
Short of this the question remains whether the policy mix is sufficient to ensure that the current economic recovery is stronger and more sustained than a limited, cyclical episode, and hopefully will be ushering a prolonged period of growth. Strong structural action will boost medium term growth thus supporting consolidation of public finance that will, in turn, strengthen economic growth. Better and more targeted use of fiscal space, in both spending and taxing decisions will reinforce the impact of structural measures.
All EU countries need to implement structural reforms, not only periphery countries. The more so euro area members that need to compensate the loss of an independent monetary policy with more flexibility and resilience in labour and product markets.
Structural reforms would support also a major rebalancing as they open profit opportunities that stimulate investment. In this respect accommodative monetary policy would enhance the impact of structural reforms by maintaining favorable financing conditions. As for the Juncker Investment Plan to be effective the following aspects should be kept in mind. First, the implementation of the Plan must be swift, although it is now clear that first effects will begin to be seen in some time in The second issue concerns the effective additionality effect of public resources. It is essential that the new Fund EFSI finances projects that are additional with respect to investment already planned in current European programs.
The Plan should activate projects which would not otherwise materialize, due to excessive risk, market failures, or financial and budgetary constraints. The identification of high quality projects is one of the crucial issues for the success of the Plan. Moreover, for some projects, the leverage effect could be lower than expected.
One question to be clarified is the consistency between state aid regulations and Fund prospective operations. Last but not least the success of the Plan depends also on the contributions from national development banks, some of which have committed to supporting projects and platforms in the framework of the Plan. A Capital Markets Union is a welcome initiative. The capital market in the EU is relatively less developed compared with the U. In the EU business environment funding is dominated by the banking system, and it is largely organized along national lines. Deeper and more accessible capital markets could contribute to boost investment, growth and jobs.
To become effective in a long-term perspective, the EU single capital market requires greater convergence in corporate and bankruptcy regulatory regimes, as well as in tax law systems within the EU.
source url Much remains to be done in energy and labor markets. With regard to energy, the integration of national markets, would have a significant impact on the competitiveness of the European economy, Harmonization of national regulations of the labor market would encourage labor mobility and would be enhanced by the pooling of resources to support adjustment and reallocation.
A common unemployment scheme would increase the resilience of the Union and more importantly the euro area and facilitate macroeconomic stabilization. Furthermore, the portability of individual pensions would help pooling national pension funds at European level, that could boost long term investment projects at EU level. To boost the performance of monetary union changes in governance are also needed. A monetary union is dynamically unstable if structural differences persist among member countries.
EMU cannot survive in the long term unless it continues to move forward in terms of integration, ultimately leading to a political union. We cannot stay still. To make monetary union really irreversible a change of mind is required: we must manage our European common house, not only on the basis of national interests, but by adopting a, systemic, common approach. Awareness of the systemic nature of problems in monetary union has been largely insufficient during the crisis, leaving the burden of adjustment largely, if not exclusively on individual countries measures based on the principle of internal devaluation.
This approach is insufficient. The financial crisis, has highlighted the need to reform European governance along the lines of greater symmetry in adjustment, on the one hand, and more flexibility, and confidence on the other. We need more symmetric adjustment pressure between debtors and creditors, drawing on the G20 approach for the correction of global imbalances.